Web Programming Step by Step

Lecture 3
More Basic HTML/CSS

Reading: 2.2; 3.1 - 3.3

Except where otherwise noted, the contents of this presentation are Copyright 2009 Marty Stepp and Jessica Miller.

Valid XHTML 1.1 Valid CSS!

2.2: More HTML Elements

Web page metadata: <meta> (2.3.3)

information about your page (for a browser, search engine, etc.)

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
 content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
<meta name="description" 
 content="Authors' web site for Building Java Programs." />
<meta name="keywords" content="java, textbook" />

Definition list: <dl>, <dt>, <dd>

dl represents a list of definitions of terms (block)
dt represents each term, and dd its definition

	<dt>newbie</dt> <dd>one who does not have mad skills</dd>
	<dt>own</dt> <dd>to soundly defeat
		(e.g. I owned that newbie!)</dd>
	<dt>frag</dt> <dd>a kill in a shooting game</dd>

Quotations: <blockquote> (2.2.3)

a lengthy quotation (block)

<p>As Lincoln said in his famous Gettysburg Address:</p>
	<p>Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth
		on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and 
		dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.</p>

Inline quotations: <q>

a short quotation (inline)

<p>Quoth the Raven, <q>Nevermore.</q></p>

We don't use " marks for two reasons:

  1. XHTML shouldn't contain literal quotation mark characters; they should be written as &quot;
  2. using <q> allows us to apply CSS styles to quotations (seen later)

HTML Character Entities (2.2.4)

a way of representing any Unicode character within a web page

< >&lt; &gt;
é è ñ&eacute; &egrave; &ntilde;
™ ©&trade; &copy;
π δ Δ&pi; &delta; &Delta;
" &&quot; &amp;

HTML-encoding text

	&lt;a href=&quot;http://google.com/search?q=marty&amp;ie=utf-8&amp;aq=t&quot;&gt;
		Search Google for Marty

Computer code: <code>

code: a short section of computer code (usually rendered in a fixed-width font)

	The <code>ul</code> and <code>ol</code>
	tags make lists.

Preformatted text: <pre>

a large section of pre-formatted text (block)

         Steve Jobs speaks loudly
            reality distortion
           Apple fans bow down

3.1: Basic CSS

Grouping styles

p, h1, h2 {
	color: green;
h2 {
	background-color: yellow;

This paragraph uses the above style.

This h2 uses the above styles.

CSS comments: /* ... */ (3.1.4)

/* This is a comment.
  It can span many lines in the CSS file. */
p {
	color: red;
	background-color: aqua;

CSS properties for fonts (3.1.5)

property description
font-family which font will be used
font-size how large the letters will be drawn
font-style used to enable/disable italic style
font-weight used to enable/disable bold style
Complete list of font properties


p {
	font-family: Georgia;
h2 {
	font-family: "Courier New";

This paragraph uses the first style above.

This h2 uses the second style above.

More about font-family

p {
	font-family: Garamond, "Times New Roman", serif;

This paragraph uses the above style.

  • if the first font is not found on the user's computer, the next is tried
  • generally should specify similar fonts
  • placing a generic font name at the end of your font-family value ensures that every computer will use a valid font


p {
	font-size: 14pt;

This paragraph uses the style above.

  • pt specifies number of point, where a point is 1/72 of an inch onscreen
  • px specifies a number of pixels on the screen
  • em specifies number of m-widths, where 1 em is equal to the font's current size

font-weight, font-style

p {
	font-weight: bold;
	font-style: italic;

This paragraph uses the style above.

CSS properties for text (3.1.6)

property description
text-align alignment of text within its element
text-decoration decorations such as underlining
gaps between the various portions of the text
text-indent indents the first letter of each paragraph
Complete list of text properties


blockquote { text-align: justify; }
h2 { text-align: center; }

The Emperor's Quote

[TO LUKE SKYWALKER] The alliance... will die. As will your friends. Good, I can feel your anger. I am unarmed. Take your weapon. Strike me down with all of your hatred and your journey towards the dark side will be complete.


p {
	text-decoration: underline;

This paragraph uses the style above.

The list-style-type property (3.2.4)

ol { list-style-type: lower-roman; }

3.2: More CSS

Body styles

body {
	font-size: 16px;

Cascading style sheets

Inheriting styles (explanation) (3.2.1)

body { font-family: sans-serif; background-color: yellow; }
p { color: red; background-color: aqua; }
a { text-decoration: overline underline; }
h2 { font-weight: bold; text-align: center; }

This is a heading.

A styled paragraph. Previous slides are available on the web site.

  • a bulleted list

Styles that conflict

p, h1, h2 { color: blue; font-style: italic; }
h2 { color: red; background-color: yellow; }

This paragraph uses the first style above.

This heading uses both styles above.

W3C CSS Validator (3.2.6)

	<a href="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/check/referer">
		<img src="http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/images/vcss"
			alt="Valid CSS!" /></a>
Valid CSS!

CSS properties for backgrounds

property description
background-color color to fill background
background-image image to place in background
background-position placement of bg image within element
background-repeat whether/how bg image should be repeated
background-attachment whether bg image scrolls with page
background shorthand to set all background properties


body {
	background-image: url("images/draft.jpg");

This is the first paragraph

This is the second paragraph...
It occupies 2 lines


body {
	background-image: url("images/draft.jpg");
	background-repeat: repeat-x;

This is the first paragraph

This is the second paragraph...
It occupies 2 lines


body {
	background-image: url("images/draft.jpg");
	background-repeat: no-repeat;
	background-position: 370px 20px;

This is the first paragraph

This is the second paragraph...
It occupies 2 lines

Favorites icon ("favicon")

<link href="filename" type="MIME type" rel="shortcut icon" />
<link href="yahoo.gif" type="image/gif" rel="shortcut icon" />
favicon favicon